The Seminole are a group of Native Americans who originated in Florida. The Seminole Tribe of Florida was recognized by the United States federal government in 1957. The Miccosukee Tribe, a closely related group of Native Americans living along the Tamiami Trail, were recognized by the federal government in 1962. Seminoles who were forcibly relocated to Oklahoma during the Second Seminole War belong to the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma. All three Seminole tribes operate independently from each other.
Black Seminoles are descendants of escaped slaves and freedmen who settled near Seminole towns. In exchange for crops and livestock, the Native American Seminoles provided them with protection from slaveholders who sought to recapture them.